Why RFID tags can be used as the world's only code

Why RFID tags can be used as the world's only code?

First, the coding of RFID electronic tags follows certain rules.

Currently RFID electronic tags follow EPC coding rules.

The full name of EPC is Electronic Product Code, and Chinese is called Product Electronic Code. The carrier of the EPC is an RFID electronic tag, and the information is transmitted through the Internet. EPC aims to establish a global, open identification standard for each single product, and to track and trace single products globally, thereby effectively improving the level of supply chain management and reducing logistics costs. EPC is a complete, complex and integrated system.

The product electronic code (EPC code) is a new generation product coding system launched by the International Barcode Organization. The original product bar code was only a code for product classification. The EPC code is a globally unique code for each single product. The EPC code is a 96-bit (binary) coding system. The 96-digit EPC code can be assigned to 268 million companies, each company can have 16 million product categories, and each category has 68 billion independent product codes. It can be said that each rice on the earth can be assigned a unique one. Encoding.

First, low frequency (from 125KHz to 134KHz)

In fact, RFID technology was first widely used and popularized at low frequencies. This frequency mainly works through inductive coupling, that is, there is a transformer coupling effect between the reader coil and the RFID tag coil. The voltage induced in the antenna by the alternating field of the reader is rectified and can be used as a power supply voltage. The magnetic field region can be well defined, but the field strength drops too quickly.


1. The general working frequency of readers working at low frequency is from 120KHz to 134KHz, and the working frequency of TI is 134.2KHz. The wavelength of this band is approximately 2500m.

2. In addition to the influence of metal materials, generally low-frequency can pass through items of any material without reducing its reading distance.

3. There are no special license restrictions for readers working at low frequencies around the world.

4, low-frequency products have different packaging forms. A good package is too expensive, but has a service life of more than 10 years.

5. Although the magnetic field area at this frequency decreases rapidly, it can generate relatively uniform read and write areas.

6. Compared with RFID readers in other frequency bands, the data transmission speed in this frequency band is relatively slow.

7. The price of the card reader is relatively expensive compared with other frequency bands.

main application:

1.Animal management animal management system

2. Application of car anti-theft and keyless door opening systems

3. Application of marathon running system

4. Automatic parking fee and vehicle management system

5. Application of automatic refueling system

6. Application of hotel door lock system

7.Access control and security management system

Compliant international standards:

a) The application of ISO 11784 RFID animal husbandry-coding structure

b) Application of ISO 11785 RFID animal husbandry-technical theory

c) ISO 14223-1 RFID Animal Husbandry Application-Air Interface

d) ISO 14223-2 RFID Animal Husbandry Application-Protocol Definition

e) ISO 18000-2 defines the low-frequency physical layer, anti-collision and communication protocols

f) DIN 30745 is mainly the European standard for waste management applications

Second, high frequency (working frequency is 13.56MHz)

The reader at this frequency no longer needs to be coiled, and the antenna can be made by etching. Card readers generally work by means of load modulation. That is, the voltage on the reader antenna is changed by turning on and off the load resistance on the card reader, so that the antenna voltage can be amplitude-modulated by the remote card reader. If people control the on and off of the load voltage through data, then these data can be transmitted from the card reader to the reader.


1. The working frequency is 13.56MHz, and the wavelength of this frequency is about 22m.

2. With the exception of metallic materials, the wavelength of this frequency can pass through most materials, but often reduces the reading distance. The reader antenna needs to be some distance away from the metal.

3. This frequency band is globally recognized and there are no special restrictions.

4. The sensor is generally in the form of an electronic tag.

5. Although the magnetic field area at this frequency decreases rapidly, it can generate relatively uniform read and write areas.

6. The system has anti-collision characteristics and can read multiple electronic tags at the same time.

7. Some data information can be written into the label.

8. The data transmission rate is faster than the low frequency, and the price is not very expensive.

main application:

1. Application of Book Archive Management System

2. Management application of gas cylinders

3. Management and application of clothing production line and logistics system

4.Three-meter prepayment system

5. Management and application of hotel door locks

6. Large-scale conference personnel channel system

7. Logistics and supply chain management solutions

8. Pharmaceutical logistics and supply chain management

9. Management of smart shelves

Compliant international standards:

a) ISO / IEC 14443 near-coupling IC card, the maximum reading distance is 10cm.

b) ISO / IEC 15693 loosely coupled IC card, the maximum reading distance is 1M.

c) ISO / IEC 18000-3 This standard defines the physical layer, anti-collision algorithm and communication protocol of 13.56MHz system.

d) Definition of 13.56MHz ISM Band Class 1 13.56MHz complies with the interface definition of EPC.

Third, ultra high frequency (working frequency is between 860MHz to 960MHz)

The UHF system transmits energy through an electric field. The energy of the electric field does not decrease very quickly, but the read area is not well defined. The reading distance of this frequency band is relatively long, and the passive source can reach about 10m. This is mainly achieved through capacitive coupling.


1. In this frequency band, the global definition is not the same-the frequency defined in Europe and part of Asia is 868MHz, the frequency band defined in North America is between 902 and 928MHz, and the recommended frequency band in Japan is between 950 and 956. The wavelength of this band is about 30cm.

2. At present, the power output of this frequency band is currently defined uniformly (4W in the United States and 500mW in Europe). It is possible that European restrictions will rise to 2W EIRP.

3. The radio waves in the UHF band cannot pass through many materials, especially water and metals, and suspended particles such as dust and fog also have an impact. Compared with high-frequency electronic tags, electronic tags in this frequency band do not need to be separated from metal.

4. The antenna of the electronic tag is generally long and label-like. The antenna has two designs, wired polarity and circular polarization, to meet the requirements of different applications.

5. This frequency band has a good reading distance, but it is difficult to define the reading area.

6, has a high data transmission rate, can read a large number of electronic tags in a short time.

main application:

1. Logistics and supply chain management solutions

2. Management and application of production line automation

3. Management and application of air parcels

4. Management and application of containers

5. Management and application of railway parcels

6. Application of logistics management system

Compliant international standards:

a) ISO / IEC 18000-6 defines the UHF physical layer and communication protocol; the air interface defines Type A and Type B; it supports readable and writable operations.

b) EPCglobal defines the structure of the electronic article code, the UHF air interface and the communication protocol. For example: Class 0, Class 1, UHF Gen2.

c) Ubiquitous ID Japanese organization, defines the UID coding structure and communication management protocol.

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